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Adipose tissue is the largest storehouse of energy in the body and makes up 15-20% of the body weight in men and 20-25% of body weight in women. Men are more likely to get “potbellies” because their fat is stored around the abdomen, whereas women tend to get heavier hips, thighs and rear ends.


Fat deposits are localized areas where fat is accumulated and does not disappear with diet and exercise. Commonly found in the face, jowl, neck, arm, abdomen, back, thigh and hip areas, they can be aggravated by the aging process, hormonal changes, poor dietary habits, lack of exercise and lower body metabolism.

Fat cells are metabolically active and are well supplied by blood vessels. The fatty acids come from 3 main sources: dietary fats, fat produced in the liver and excess blood glucose. There are two types of fat – Brown fat and white fat. About 20% to 25% of adult body weight is made from white adipose tissue.


Brown fat assists in burning energy / calories, they generate heat and appear as small lipid droplets. White fat of the conventional type stores energy and is full of lipid droplets; it is always located beneath the skin and is the huge cause of obesity.


Weight related health risk factors include:


  • Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, cardiac failure and myocardial infarction

  • Endocrine diseases such as Type II Diabetes

  • Osteoporosis and joint immobility

  • Premature aging and degenerative diseases

  • Hypertension and diabetes will contribute to renal, ocular and other organ failures



Prior to designing a weight management protocol, it is imperative that the patient’s weight management assessment parameters are evaluated. They include Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Impedance Analysis (BIA) and blood investigations. The weight management protocol varies from person to person and is tailored based on each individual’s weight assessment parameters.


Body Mass Index

Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women. It is a measurement of weight (kg) divided by height (in meters square). BMI is a reliable indicator of total body fat, which is related to the risk of disease. The score is valid for both men and women but it does have some limits. It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build and it may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle mass.

The BMI reference is as follows :


  • Underweight : <18.5

  • Normal: 18.5 – 24.9

  • Overweight : 25 – 29.9

  • Obese : > 30


Waist to Hip Ratio

Waist circumference is an indirect indicator of intra-abdominal fat tissue, often called visceral fat. To measure your hip circumference, place a tape measure around the widest part of your buttocks. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the waist measurement divided by the hip measurement. The normal WHR ratio for a women is greater than 0.80 and for men is greater than 0.95. Ratios that exceed these standards indicate increased risk of obesity-related health problems such as type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease.


This assessment should not be used for people with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35, because they already exceed these cut-off points. Research shows that people with “apple-shaped” bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more health risks than those with “pear-shaped” bodies who carry more weight around the hips.


Body Impedance Analysis

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, or BIA, is considered one of the most exact and accessible methods of screening body fat. Body impedance is measured when a small, safe electrical signal is passed through the body, carried by water and fluids. Impedance is greatest in fat tissue, which contains only 10-20% water, while fat-free mass, which contains 70-75% water, allows the signal to pass much more easily. By using the impedance measurements along with a person’s height and weight, and body type (gender, age, fitness level), it is possible to calculate the percentage of body fat, fat-free mass, hydration level, and other body composition values. The table below shows the health conditions (excellent, good, fair & poor) based on the % of body fat for a respective age group.




  • The weight management protocol varies from person to person and is tailored based on each individual’s weight assessment parameters.

  • Weight management protocols include meal replacement diets, protein modulating diet, appetite suppressants, metabolic modulators, hormone replacement therapy, and most importantly regular exercise and healthy lifestyle

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